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Dhanshinga / धनशिंगा

This is the village of Dhanistha Sakhi and lies near Umrao. Dhanistha Sakhi is a Krishna-paksiya sakhi, meaning she is in the group of sakhis who have more affection for Krishna than for Radhika. Dhanistha Sakhi is always busily engaged in various services in the home of Yashoda. She especially performs the tasks of a messenger, arranging for Krishna to meet with Radhika.

Kosi (Kosivan)

This place is situated on the Mathura–Delhi highway about thirty-five miles from Mathura and some ten miles from Chhatravan. Here Shri Krishna arranged for Nand Baba to have darshan of Kushasthali at Gomati-kund, situated west of the village. Pretending ignorance and speaking in a taunting voice, Radhika asked Krishna, "Ko 'si? – Who are You?" This place is therefore called Kosi or Kosivan.


Once, Shri Krishna was so eager to meet Radhika that He knocked on Her door. From inside the house, Radhika asked, "Ko 'si?" Shri Krishna replied, "I am Krishna." The word Krishna also happens to mean "black snake". Radhika therefore said, "If You are a black snake, then why come here? Do You want to bite Me? Go to the forest. You have no purpose here." "No Priyatama, I am Ghansyama." Radhika decided to take Ghansyama to mean "black cloud". "If You are a black cloud, then You also are not needed here," She answered. "Do not shower rain here and muddy My courtyard. Go to the forests and fields to discharge Your rain." "Priyatama, I am Chakri." Chakri also means "potter". Radhika therefore said, "There is no need for a chakri here. No wedding festival is being held in My house. Take Your clay pots and find a marriage celebration." "Priyatama, I am Madhusudan." Radhika intentionally took the word madhusudan to mean "bumblebee" and said, "If You are madhusudan, then quickly fly from here to a flower-garden and drink the nectar of the flowers. There is no flower-garden here." "Come on, I am Your beloved Hari," Krishna insisted. Radhika, interpreted hari as "monkey" or "lion", and laughingly replied, "What is the need of a monkey or a lion here? Do You want to scratch Me? Quickly run away to a dense forest. We are .all scared of lions and monkeys here." In this way, Radhika jokes with Her beloved Hari. May They be pleased with us. The place of this joking pastime is called Kosivan.


The village of Ranavadi lies one mile north of A-rabadi and three miles south-west of Chhata. Nand-nandan Shri Krishna is directly manmatha-manmatha, the one who attracts even Cupid, and Radhika is the direct manifestation of mahabhav. Her function is to fulfil all of Krishna's desires. In Ranavadi, They are both absorbed in varieties of love-play with the aim of pleasing each other. Ranavadi means "the place of amorous exchanges and playful games". Around one hundred and fifty years ago, a Bengali baba named Krishnadas performed bhajan here. One day, an ardent desire to visit all the sacred places of India awakened in his heart. Coincidentally, a brahman from here was leaving for Dvarka at that same time, and he insisted that Krishnadas Babaji accompany him. On the way, they took darshan of many holy places before finally arriving at Dvarka-dham. To enter Dvarka, one had to be branded with a chakra, which Krishnadas Babaji did. After visiting other pilgrimage places, he made his way back to Ranavadi, where he found, to his amazement that he could no longer absorb his mind in bhajan. Despite great endeavour, he was unable to remember Shri Krishna's eightfold pastimes of the day. This caused him great distress, so he went to see his friend Siddha Krishnadas Babaji at Radhakund. When Siddha Babaji saw Krishnadas Babaji, he turned his face away and said, "You have been deprived of Radhika's mercy. You have left Her exclusive shelter and have accepted the emblem of Dvarka, and therefore the shelter of Rukmani, Satyabhama and the other queens of Dvarka. As long as you are in your current body, it will be impossible for you to get Radhika's mercy. Please leave this place at once, otherwise I will also be deprived of Her mercy." Despondent, Krishnadas Babaji returned to Ranavadi. He closed the doors of his cottage and refrained from taking water and food. His burning separation produced in his body a fire that exploded inside him, and within three days his material body had turned to ashes. After three days, the villagers broke open the door of his cottage, and were astonished to find ashes instead of his body. On the Amavasya day in the month of Paush (December–January), the Brajvasis of this place annually celebrate the disappearance festival of this babaji with great splendour.


The previous and correct name of this village is Kinnari-Syamari. In fact, it comprises two villages, namely Nari and Semari. The village of Semari, the residence of the yuthesvari Syamala Sakhi, lies four miles south-east of Chhata; and one mile south of Semari is the village of Nari.


Once, Radhika exhibited a mood of jealous anger that seemed unbreakable. Lalita, Vishakha and the other sakhis tried their level best to pacify Her, but to no avail; instead Her mana simply increased. Finally, Krishna, on the advice of the sakhis, disguised Himself as Syamari Sakhi and, playing the vina, arrived at that place. Upon seeing the amazing beauty of Syamari Sakhi and hearing her sing in various exquisite ragas to the vina's full range of ascending and descending notes, Radhika became enchanted. "Sakhi, what is Your name?" She asked, "and where do You live?" The disguised Krishna, answered, "My name is Syamari. I am a kinnari from the heavenly planets." Syamari Kinnari then played the vina and sang so beautifully that Radhika was overwhelmed. She was just about to put Her jewelled necklace around the neck of Somali Kinnari, when the Sakhi folded Her hands and made a request at Her lotus feet: "Please give Me the jewel of Your man." When Radhika heard this, She immediately understood that this was Her dear most beloved asking Her to surrender Her precious sulky mood. Now Radha and Krishna were happily reunited, and the sakhis were overjoyed to have arranged this reconciliation. Nari-Semari has taken its name from this sweet pastime: "Nari" comes from the word kinnari, and "Semari" from “Syamari". According to Vrindavan-Lilamirt, the name Nari is the corrupted form of the word hari.


Another pastime also took place here. When Krishna and Baldev were about to leave for Mathura, Akrur seated Them on his chariot and quickly drove the chariot away. The gopis stood watching with unblinking eyes as the chariot gradually disappeared from their vision. They continued to watch as the dust it kicked up settled to the ground. Beside themselves with grief and agony, they fell to the ground calling out, "O Hari, O Hari!" To preserve the memory of this pastime, Maharaja Vajranabh established a village here known as Hari. Gradually, the word hari changed to Nari. Kishori-kund, Sankarsan-kund and a temple of Shri Baldev are located in this village.

Khadirvan (Khayro)

The present name of this village is Khayro, and lies three miles south of Chhata and three miles south-east of Javat. Krishna would come to herd His cows here. Sangam-kund, where a meeting (sangam) between the gopis and Krishna took place, is situated here. Lokanath Goswami performed sadhan-bhajan on the bank of this pond in a solitary place. Occasionally, Bhugarbha Goswami would also come here and perform bhajan together with Lokanath Goswami. Nearby is a very charming kadamb grove. Krishna, Balram and the sakhas performed many kinds of childhood pastimes here. Every year when the dates ripened, Krishna and the sakhas would come here to herd the cows and eat ripe dates.


Situated near Javat, this village lies between Khayaro and Anjanauk. It was here that Krishna actually killed Bakasur. This village is also called Chilli because Krishna caught the beak of Bakasur and split it (chirna) down the middle.


Krishna and the sakhas used to eat their lunch here at midday when they were out tending the cows. Mother Yashoda would send lunch for Krishna and Balram, and the other mothers would do so for their own sons. Krishna and His friends would then eat in a playful mood, making lots of jokes. The word chhak means "light meal", and neochhak means "to eat chhak".


Bhandagor is situated two miles north-west of Ranavadi, and currently goes by the name of Bhadavali. Shri Nand Maharaja's storeroom (bhandar-graha) was here. The cows were also brought here for grazing.


Khanpur lies one mile south of Bhadavali. Shri Radha-Krishna and the sakhas ate various foodstuffs (khadya) here after playing Holi in Ranavadi.


Badi-baithan is situated two-and-a-half miles north of Kokilavan, and Chhoti-baithan is half a mile north of Badibaithan. Thus, both villages lie near each other. Nand Maharaja, Upanand, and all other older gopas would sit together here and discuss the welfare of Shri Krishna and Balram. A place where these kinds of discussions or consultations were going on is called a baithak. Shri Sanatan Goswami would occasionally stay here for a few days at a time to perform bhajan and remember these pastimes. The Brajvasis were charmed by his affectionate behaviour and would enthusiastically request him to remain here for longer, which he would do. South-east of Badi-baithan is Krishna-kund, which Krishna holds very dear. He used to bathe and play here with the sakhas. In Chhoti-baithan is Kuntala-kund, where the sakhas used to decorate Krishna. In Badi-baithan is a temple of Dauji, and in Chhoti-baithan is a temple of Sakshi-Gopal Ji.


The present name of this village is Baindokhar, but was previously called Badokhor. It is situated west of Baithan. Radha and Krishna performed pastimes here, behind the closed doors of a kunja. Charan-Ganga and Charan Pahadi are located here.


This village lies between Charan-pahadi and Kotvan. Krishna and the gopis famous autumnal ras took place here.


Once, Shri Krishna was beside Himself with the desire to meet with Radhika, and restlessly gazed down the path along which She would appear. Finally, He called Her name on His flute. Radhika and the sakhis were very attracted by that sound and they made their way to Krishna, who was overjoyed to meet them. The gopis thought to play a trick on Krishna. Without making a sound, they picked up their beloved's black blanket (Kari kamar) and hid it. Shri Krishna then began searching for His dear blanket. The devotee poet Shri Surdas has briefly described this pastime with much rasa. In this poem, Kanhaiya is complaining to Maiya:[1]

"Maiya, I went to the forest to graze the cows. They had wandered far away, so I put down My blanket and went after them. But while I was gone some sakhi quietly stole My blanket. When I returned and could not find it, I asked the sakhis, `Where is My blanket? If you have taken it, then return it.' One sakhi said, `Kanhaiya, Your blanket fell in the Yamuna and is floating downstream. I saw it myself.' Another sakhi said, `Kanhaiya, I saw a cow eating Your blanket.' Maiya, tell Me, how could a kind-hearted cow eat My blanket? Another sakhi said, `Kanhaiya, if You dance in front of me, I will give You a new blanket.' Maiya, these sakhis are teasing Me in many ways."

Saying this, Kanhaiya's eyes filled with tears. Maiya lifted up her laid and put Him to her breast. This village is called Kamar because Krishna was completely immersed in kam, or prem, here, as He eagerly waited for Radhika. It is also named Kamar because Krishna called out for His black blanket, or kamar. Here one finds Gopi-kund, Gopi-jalvihar, Hari-kund, Mohan-kund, and the temples of Mohanaji and Durvasaji.


Basosi is situated two miles north of Sheshashai. Here, the bees became intoxicated upon smelling the beautiful fragrance of Shri Krishna's limbs and hummed all around Him. The word basa means "fragrance" and thus the name of this place became Basosi. Here Radha, Krishna and the sakhas became intoxicated in playful pastimes. The air was filled with the fragrance of Their limbs, with the red and pink powder of the Hole festival, and with the fragrance of sandalwood.


Paya-gaon lies six miles east of Kosi. Although the mothers of Krishna, Balram and the gopas would daily send lunch for them, one day, their lunches arrived late. In hunger, Shri Krishna and the sakhas went to this village and drank milk (paya). This village has therefore become known as Paya-gaon. North of Paya-gaon is Paya-sarovar, as well as a grove beautifully decorated with tamala and kadamb trees.


  1. maiya meri kamar chor lai
    main ban jat charavan gaiya suni dekh lai
    ek kahe kanha teri kamar jamuna jat bahi
    ek kahe kanha teri kamar surbhi khay gai
    ek kahe nacho mere age lai dehun ju nai
    Surdas Jasumati ke age anshuvan dhar bahi